M2M and IoT (Machine to Machine and Internet of Things)

M2M and IoT (Machine to Machine and Internet of Things)


M2M and IoT (Machine to Machine and Internet of Things) are closely related to each other and should be considered as a concept to build prototypes which reveal a worldof infinite possibilities. Machine to Machine (M2M) refers to protocols or technologies which can be used to initiate machine to machine communication. It can be done using wireless or wired systems. Internet of Things (IoT) is buzzword which describes any object or things which we can use in our day-to-day lives communicate with each other and in-turn with us using WWW or Internet. 

Industry Forecast and Market Research

According to Gartner, world’s leading information technology research and advisory company, the Internet of Things installed base will grow to 26 Billion Units By 2020. The incremental IoT supplier revenue contribution from IoT in 2020 is estimated at $309 billion. As per IT research agency, International Data Corporation (IDC), the global Internet of Things market, over a period of 6 years is expected to grow by more than $5 trillion and predicts that global IoT market would hit $7.1 trillion by 2020.

Cisco’s Internet Business Solutions Group (IBSG) predicts some 25 billion devices will be connected by 2015, and 50 billion by 2020.

Consultants McKinsey & Co estimate that 50bn devices will be connected by 2020.

Recent company to foray into this huge opportunistic market is IBM Technology, which is going to invest $ 3 billion (about Rs 18,770 crore) over a period of four years to establish a new Internet of Things (IoT) division.

 How it changes world

Un-analysed data is junk and understood data is Revenue. Imagine a world in which all your wearable devices including clothes are smart, your door greets you, your washing machine and dish washers do pre-defined tasks and send you alert when it’s done. Before you enter into your home all smart things gets cleaned up and are ready to greet you with your favourite music and dishes already lined up waiting for your order. The advertisements are more personal and direct as they have all the analysed data (which brand, music, food, vehicles, and things you like/dislike) and your buying patterns.

The challenge In IoT can be defining as how to connect the things and once connected how to analyze the data. Both the aspects are very important and as the Industry matures we will be seeing more and more innovations to solve these two challenges. The analysis of data is equally important and it offers a huge opportunity to directly co-relate with the customers.

M2M and IoT (Machine to Machine and Internet of Things)  is based on the assumption that all things can broadcast data and it will be connected to internet .Without human intervention the things should be able to send and receive the data. When a thing can act independently with minimal or no intervention, it’s tagged as smart. To make things smart it should have a unique identity, ability to transfer data, have some sensors and ability to be controlled remotely.

Use cases:

 Consumer Segment 

  1. Home Automation
  2. Personal Asset Tracking
  3. Vehicle management: Self test for engine and other parts and sends alerts if need to be repaired or changed.
  4. Entertainment System Management
  5. Power Management -Lightening Control
  6. Security -Alarm System
  7. Wearable Social Devices e.g. automatic tweet/ facebook posts for Marathon/exercise, wake up on time
  8. Kids Management : Wireless diapers, Proximity Alert, smart toothbrush and soaps
  9. Elderly people management
  10. Gardening : Soil / moisture sensors alerts
  11. Reply/Response from inanimate objects.


  1. Asset tracking
  2. Automatic Traffic Management
  3. Health care: Real-time/Remote monitoring of Patients, SMS alerts
  4. Transport Management  : Vehicle tracking, Container Temperature sensing
  5. Energy Management: Billing, threshold, monthly units display.
  6. Smart Water Management System
  7. Smart Waste Management system
  8. Environmental monitoring and control
  9. Agricultural water/fertilizer management System
  10. Defence
  11. Climate Control and monitoring
  12. Parking meters
  13. Cattle management
  14. Wearable Advertisements : T-shirts which can display Ads and pay users for wearing it.
  15. Smart Vending machines: With e-money we can buy and send alerts to owners when supply is low.

These are few of the derived use cases but there are infinite possibilities and it’s left to the imagination of the companies and innovators to think act and build “smart” things.

Few of these use cases have already prototypes built in some part of the world and few are still imaginary and this point of time, but we strongly believe, by 2020 many use cases will become reality.

M2M and IoT (Machine to Machine and Internet of Things) Standards

 The main standards which address M2M and IoT (Machine to Machine and Internet of Things)  are MQTT, CoAP and Recommendation ITU-T Y.2060 (06/2012).

  1. MQTT:  MQTT Version 3.1.1, OASIS Standard,29 October 2014.MQTT is a Client Server publish/subscribe messaging transport protocol. It is light weight, open, simple, and designed so as to be easy to implement. These characteristics make it ideal for use in many situations, including constrained environments such as for communication in                   M2M and IoT (Machine to Machine and Internet of Things)  contexts where a small code footprint is required and/or network bandwidth is at a premium. The protocol runs over TCP/IP, or over other network protocols that provide ordered, lossless, bi-directional connections. Ref: http://mqtt.org/documentation
  2. CoAP :  The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is a specialized web   transfer protocol        for use with constrained nodes and constrained  (e.g., low-power, lossy) networks.  The  nodes often have 8-bit microcontrollers with small amounts of ROM and RAM, while constrained networks such as IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks  (6LoWPANs) often have high packet error rates and a typical  throughput of 10s of kbit/s.  The protocol is designed for machine- to-machine (M2M) applications such as smart energy and building automation. CoAP provides a request/response interaction model between application endpoints, supports built-in discovery of services and resources, and includes key concepts of the Web such as URIs and Internet media types.  CoAP is designed to easily interface with HTTP for integration with the Web while meeting specialized requirements such as multicast support, very low overhead, and      simplicity for constrained environments.

       Ref: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7252

  1. ITU-T Y.2060 (06/2012): The Internet of Things (IoT) has been defined in Recommendation ITU-T Y.2060 (06/2012) as a global infrastructure for the information society, enabling advanced services by interconnecting (physical and virtual) things based on existing and evolving interoperable information and communication technologies. 

Software and Protocols:

There are various groups formed and sponsored by companies which are trying to develop common software for M2M and IoT (Machine to Machine and Internet of Things)  .

  1. Thread Protocol  :  http://www.threadgroup.org/Technology.aspx
  1. All Seen Alliance: Alljoyn  https://allseenalliance.org/
  1. The IoTivity project is sponsored by the Open Interconnect Consortium (OIC), a group of industry leaders who will be developing a standard specification and certification program to address these challenges. IoTivity will deliver an open source reference implementation of the OIC standard specifications, yet will not be limited to those requirements.


  1. Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC):  Industrial Internet Reference Architecture: The IIC itself is not a standards organization; however, it strongly advocates for open standard technologies in order to ease the deployment of connected technologies. IIC Working Groups identify the requirements for open interoperability standards, evaluates them, and relates existing standards to rigorous criteria for internet and industrial systems.  Ref: http://www.iiconsortium.org/index.htm


The World is gradually shifting from traditional separate hardware and software entities to integrated internet enabled platform and this possess new challenges to all manufactures and consumers alike. 

How Argus is Involved in IoT?

Argus Embedded Systems is working on two very innovative hardware which comes under  M2M and IoT (Machine to Machine and Internet of Things)  category and are in the stage of concluding the prototypes.

Argus Embedded System  is India’s leading company in providing electronic product design services for Industrial, Networking & Telecom and Defense domains. Our professional team of experts in India, USA and UK are available via phone or email for your consultation if you have any M2M and IoT (Machine to Machine and Internet of Things)   product  requirements.