Category Archives: Argus Embedded Systems

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PCB Reverse engineering

PCB Reverse engineering 

PCB Reverse engineering is the process of analyzing an existing product or design for the desire & purpose of replicating the similar functionality or the behavior without the aid of original manufacturing or actual design documents. It’s a challenging task as the information given is limited and the task requires committed experienced professional to start from minimal information to the cusp where the production of the new design can take place.

Do we have any standard to govern PCB Reverse engineering?

Before understanding the steps used for PCB Reverse engineering, let’s understand, is it ethical to use Reverse engineering or are there any standards which mentions about reverse engineering ?  Reverse engineering as such is a wide term and is applicable in multiple fields of mechanical engineering, electronic engineering, software engineering, chemical engineering, and systems biology.

From software perspective In 1990, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) had defined reverse engineering as “The process of analyzing a subject system to identify the system’s components and their interrelationships and to create representations of the system in another form or at a higher level of abstraction”, where the “subject system” is to be considered as the end product of software development.

In electronic engineering there is as such, no standard or guidelines which mentions about reverse engineering. Jerry can, Panzerschreck, Tupolev Tu-4, SCR-584 radar, V-2 rocket
BGM-71 are historic few examples which are reverse engineered to make similar powerful weapons.

Top Reasons for Reverse Engineering.

  1. Obsolescence : Obsolete part replacement
  2. Interfacing of different parts of system.
  3. Product security analysis.
  4. Cost Optimization
  5.  Re-positioning of obsolete components.
  6. Competitor Analysis and gain

Tools used for PCB Reverse Engineering

  • Good multi-meter
  • Continuity Tester
  • Inductive short tracer
  • Milli-Ohm meter
  • Microscope
  • Light panel  & Torch for detailed PCB inspection.
  • X-Ray imaging of PCB
  • Lot of Patience & Passion

Steps for PCB Reverse Engineering

  • Assign reference designations (U, J, R, C, D) to unmarked components before starting PCB reverse engineering.
  • Create a Component level BOM
  • Design -Identify the system’s components and their interrelationships.
  • Components Placement & Mechanical
    • XY locations of Connectors, LED, Switches etc
    •  Board mechanical Mounting holes & any special cuts on Boards, Board size etc
  • Download datasheets, application notes, and architecture information
  • Create net list
  • Make the Schematic Drawing and PCB Layout

PCB reverse engineering is grueling process which seems impossible sometimes but right experience, dedication and success gives paramount satisfaction and overshadows the hurdles faced in the journey.   .

Argus Embedded System  Re-Engineering Services are designed and developed in accordance with the specific customer’s needs and demands.  If the product or the PCB is re-engineered by us, we take responsibility of the custom developed hardware to test the functionality as per the original product. This assurance can not be given by most of the design bureau as either they are in to only manufacturing or only in the electronic product design.

Our services are widely appreciated by the clients for their quality, timely execution and genuine prices.

Where we can help 

  • Obsolete products where the artwork no longer exists.
  • Obsolete products with no  circuit diagrams
  • Products Re-designed for RoHS/ WEEE compliance
  • Through-hole to SMD parts Migration
  • While retaining the core features and logic of existing systems migration to emerging technologies.
  • Design Changes
    • To improve operations, maintenance and support issues on older circuit Boards
    •  For increased performance.
    •  Reduced life-cycle costs and lower System Cost.

Argus Embedded System is  Industry’s leading company in providing electronic product design and Electronics Manufacturing for Security, Home and Industrial automation, Medical, Transport & Logistics, Automotive, Networking, Telecom, IoT and  Connected devices. Our IoT Product line can help you in defining and designing any of your product ideas.

Our professional experts  are available via phone or email for your consultation. Ask for a free quote on any of our services or products. Our Major customers are from India, Australia, USA and UK.

Automatic Meter Reader for Energy Meters


Automatic Meter Reader for Energy Meters
Automatic meter reading, or AMR, is the technology of automatically collecting consumption
of energy parameters and send to server for comparison and data analysis purposes.

The parameters which are sent to the server are Active Energy, Voltage, Current,
Frequency, Power, and Power factor.
The advantage of installing Automatic Meter Reader for Energy Meters is
to obtain the historical consumption data and utilize them to understand the high consumption
area, timing and implementation of strategy to reduce the same.

As per Smart Energy Consumer Collaborative (USA based nonprofit organization)
a smarter grid can help you in following ways :

  • Nearly $600 in direct bill savings for the average household each year
  • Gives control over your power bill by making it possible to
    monitor and adjust your energy use through smart meters and home energy management
    systems that offer 24/7 rate and usage readings.
  • Reduces expenses to energy producers by allowing direct communication
    with end-user equipment to reduce consumption during these peak periods,
    lowering the need for costly standby power plants
  • Some states offer new pricing plans that make it possible
    for consumers to save money by controlling how much electricity
    they use during times of peak demand when electricity is more expensive

Deployment Diagram

amr_deployment

 

AMR

Argus has developed Automatic Meter Reader for Energy Meters with features:

Automatic Meter Reader

Automatic Meter Reader

Device works on Ac supply 230V

Supports RS485/RS232 communication

Can connect up to 32 electric meters in a network

GPRS/SMS based system.

Reads from electric meters and updates to server/mobile

Battery backup during power failure.

Application

  • Electrical Panels – Industrial LT Panels.
  • Motor Control Centres, Distribution Contol & Relay Panels.
  • Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Panels.
  • Genset Panels.
  • Generation, Transmission and Distribution Panels.
  • Test Benches and Laboratory Equipment.
  • Uninterrupted Power Supply.
  • Special OEM Application.
  • Suitable for 3P, 4W LT Application.
  • Three line LCD backlit display.
  • Displays: Active Energy, Voltage, Current, Frequency, Power, Power factor etc.
  • Three push buttons on the front panel for programming and scrolling.
  • CT secondary -/1A or -/5 A (user selectable).
  • Maximum values of parameters can be reset.
  • Available with RS485 MODBUS communication.
  • Available in Class Accuracy 1.0

Automatic Meter Reader for Energy Meters purchase request can be sent to sales@sysargus.com
or can be contacted via phone or email.
We ship this product worldwide and also it can be customized as per your requirements.

We have independently developed AMR addon board which can be added to any of the existing meters and make it GPRS enabled and smart enough to be connected to the cloud.

Argus Embedded System is India’s leading company in providing electronic product design services for Security & Surveillance, Home and Industrial automation, Medical, Transport & Logistics, Automotive, Networking, Telecom, IoT and  Connected devices. Our professional experts  are available via phone or email for your consultation. Ask for a free quote on any of our services or products.

References :

https://powermin.nic.in/sites/default/files/webform/notices/Strategy_for_Rollout_of_Advanced_metering_infrastructure.pdf

https://www.gov.uk/guidance/smart-meters-how-they-work

https://www.eia.gov/tools/faqs/faq.php?id=108&t=3

More from Argus Blogs

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How to calculate target cost for Electronic Products?

Target costing is a critical factor in product design and development. It not only gives idea about the final product but also helps in assuring the success of the product in the market. How to calculate target cost for Electronic Products? Before going into the specifics the brief  life cycle of electronics design and development of a new innovative product can be outlined as below.

Generic Life Cycle of Electronic Products

  1.    Idea of a product
  2.    Market Analysis  – Marketing Requirement document
  3.    Target Costing : How to calculate target cost for Electronic Products ?
  4.    Requirement design – Product requirement Design document
  5.    Quotes for design and development – Technical Proposal
  6.    Prototype build – Design, verification and manufacturing of prototype
  7.    Requirement verification and validation
  8.     Mass Production
Electronic Product Development Process

Electronic Product Development Process

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Historical Origin of Target costing

Target costing is believed to be originated in Japan in the 1960s and since the 1980s Western companies in North America and Europe have tried to adopt target costing albeit over the years many variations of target costing have been developed and are being used in different countries. ““Value engineering” is another similar known concept from Americans which emphasizes on maximizing desirable product attributes while at the same time minimizing product costs (Leahy, 1998).

How to calculate target cost for Electronic Products ?

The principle of target cost starts with finalizing of selling price of a particular product and work back to the cost by removing the cost of profit. The design and manufacturing teams are vital for this as the emphasis is given from the design and planning stage, so that the apt decision are made to determine the price and feature combinations suitable for the product and profitable for the customers.

Factors which affect costing 

  • The Mandatory features of the product
  • Good-to-have features
  • Bill of material, PCB costing : No of components
  • Environment Requirement :  Russia or South Africa, inside water or top of mountain
  • The complexity of design and ease of manufacturing
  • Enclosure design and material
  • In-house expertise and sub-contracts
  • Batch size and packaging, shipping costs

The concept of value  analysis is of prime importance here as it aims to reduce costs by identifying those area of a product or service which even if removed does not affect “user value/ function” or “esteem value/brand value” of the product.

Cost of a unit can be worked out by taking cost of all above and desired profitability.  Conventional costing records costs only as they are incurred but target cost gives flexibility and ability for cost control and increase the margins as per demand of the market.

Argus product development process involves focus on value engineering and target-costing for electronic products to make it viable for customers and consumers equally.

Argus Embedded System is India’s leading company in providing electronic product design services for Industrial, Networking & Telecom and Defense domains. Our professional experts  are available via phone or email for your consultation.  Give us a chance to help you, in making your dream come true. Ask for a free quote on any of our services or products.

More from Argus Blogs

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Smart irrigation controller with soil moisture sensor

Argus Embedded System has designed and developed Smart irrigation controller with soil moisture sensor. It can be connected to up to 4- humidity sensors where it continuously monitors humidity level under the soil/tree and displays in the 16*2 LCD display. Whenever the humidity value reaches below the critical value, the system activates the alarm and displays the condition as dry for its respective sensor.

Smart irrigation controller with soil moisture sensor product is useful in any part of world and gives alert in form of LCD display and buzzer. It results in optimal water utilization in agriculture.

The product can be bought by farmers, garden owners including professional enthusiast to  make them Agri-smart.

Block Diagram

Smart irrigation system with humidity sensor.

Smart irrigation system with humidity sensor.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Features :

 Microcontroller: ATMEGA
 16KB Flash
 8 channel 10 bit ADC
 16X2 LCD display
 4KHZ PIEZO Buzzer
 Easy installation
 Nickel plated, high electric conduction performance, anti-rust, long lifespan
humidity sensor
 Operating voltage: 12V DC
 Operating temperature: -40°C ~ 85°C
 Humidity range: 0-100%
 Dimensions:117*97*30

Product 

Smart Irrigation Controller

Smart Irrigation Controller

The product purchase request can be sent to sales@sysargus.com  or can be contacted via phone or email . We ship this product worldwide and also it can be customized as per your requirements.

Argus Embedded System is India’s leading company in providing electronic product design services for Industrial, Networking & Telecom and Defense domains. Our professional experts  are available via phone or email for your consultation.  Give us a chance to help you, in making your dream come true. Ask for a free quote on any of our services or products.

RF Design Capabilities company in India

India is becoming design hub for the world, with new policies and implementations we foresee India in forefront of design services. RF design is one of the niche field which poses great challenges so its not easy to find RF Design Capabilities company in India, but yes there are few and Argus Embedded System is  one of them. It is India’s leading company in providing electronic product design services for Industrial, Networking & Telecom and Defense domains.

Aggressive function integration  demanding heat removal solutions along with higher operating temperature conditions, lower power consumption, lower costs and many other factors drive the RF board design to perform at highest level of integration within extremely competitive market.  Argus Embedded System is one of the few RF Design Capabilities company in India which has delivered and designed time and again products with complex RF architecture and design for customers. Given below are some of the images of projects done for our customers.

6.4GHz RF Board (WiFi application)

6_4Ghz_Wifi_Board

2.4 GHz RF Front End – Chip Antenna

2_4_GHz_RF_Front_End

2.4GHz RF Front end – PCB Antenna

2_4_PCB_Antenna2

2_4_PCB_Antenna1

5.2 GHz RF Front end

5.2_RF_Front_End

802.11n  – Mixed signal

802.11n_Mixed_Signal

430MHz RF Receiver – RF Tag application

430_Mhz_RF_Reciever

Argus Embedded System is India’s leading company in providing electronic product design services for Industrial, Networking & Telecom and Defense domains. Our professional experts  are available via phone or email for your consultation.  Give us a chance to help you, in making your dream come true. Ask for a free quote on any of our services.

RF and Microwave PCB design

 

RF and Microwave PCB design

RF and Microwave PCB design is considered to be a niche domain requiring exceptional understanding of constrained, exhaustive guidelines and general pitfalls. Selection and placement of components even PCB material if not chosen wisely could cause complete failure of the RF and Microwave PCB design, which could have been done with utmost care at the design phase. We will delve further on RF and Microwave PCB Design and try to understand why it is highly recommended to give your RF and Microwave PCB design projects to only specialized firm.

RF (Radio Frequency) is a part of electromagnetic spectrum having frequencies from 3 kHz to 300GHz with wavelengths ranging from 1 mm to 100 KM, travelling at the speed of light. A part of Radio frequency spectrum between 300MHz to 300GHz is known as Microwave which includes UHF, EHF and SHF band. RF signals can be characterized as high frequency analogue signals. As the signals are analogue in nature and mostly travel over-the-air the amplitude, voltage and current levels are not defined but vary as per environment and medium. To add to the complexity of the analogue signal, its not single frequency but generally band of frequencies so the RF and Microwave PCB design and circuits are designed to pass the desired band and filter out the rest. 

Issues and Challenges in RF and Microwave PCB Design

  • RF and Microwaves are highly sensitive to noise.
  • Matching Impedance is challenging as higher the frequency the lower the tolerance.
  • Expects Zero Return loss
  • Cross talk is directly proportional to the edge rates of the active line.
  • Dissipation factor and dielectric constant value can cause huge losses
  • Taking account of Skin Depth loss: At higher frequencies electrons flow on the outer surfaces of the conductor knows as skin effect and causes the effective resistance of the conductor to increase. Continue reading

Announcement of Office Relocation: Argus Embedded Systems, Hyderabad, India Office Moved to New Location

Announcement of Office Relocation: Argus Embedded Systems, Hyderabad, India Office Moved to New Location

We are pleased to announce that Our Hyderabad, India Office have moved to a new office.

Argus Embedded Systems, a leading Electronic Product Design and Electronic manufacturing Services firm, is pleased to announce its new location for the Hyderabad, India office.

With an excellent infrastructure and better facilities, the new office is located at :

Plot No. 36, Phase-III,

1st Floor, Kamalapuri colony

Hyderabad, Telangana-500073

Argus provides electronic design services for Telecom, Networking, Semiconductor, Defence, Aerospace, Industrial, Automotive, Medical, Robotics, and Wireless domains. Clients are based throughout USA, Europe, UK, Australia and Middle East.